Medieval & Reformational Universities

 

Medieval scholar

                    Medieval & Reformation Universities
11th to 17th century

 

1088 AD

Founding of University of Bologna by law students in northern Italy; city of 40,000 residents in 1250. Generally accepted to be the first and oldest European university

1090

Founding of the University of Paris by teachers/masters; Abelard (1079-1149) among its earlier teachers

1096

Founding of Oxford University, at Oxford, 50 miles northwest of London

1160

1179

Pope Alexander III (1159-81), who studied law at Bologna, endorsed cathedral schools and right of University of Bologna to issue teaching licenses

1209

Scholars defect from  Oxford to establish Cambridge University

1217

Founding of the University of Salamanca, Spain

1229

Founding of the University of Toulouse, France

1231

Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) recognized the political autonomy of Europe’s universities

1235

Founding of the University of Orleans, France

1249

Founding of University College, Oxford, the first of the University’s endowed residential colleges

1250

Establishment of four colleges at the University of Paris, including the Sorbonne

1263

Founding of Balliol College, Oxford University

1264

Dominican scholar and University of Paris professor Thomas Aquinas completed his Summa Theologica

1290

Founding of the University of Coimbra, in Lisbon, Portugal

1441

England’s King Henry VI founds King’s College, Cambridge; linked to Eton as its feeder school.

1517

Martin Luther, a graduate of the University of Erfurt  and professor at the University of Wittenberg, formally breaks from the Roman Catholic Church and launches the Reformation

1534

John Calvin (1509-64), graduate of the University of Paris, makes his break from Rome and establishes his principal base in Geneva.

1535

England’s Henry VIII breaks with Rome and transforms Oxford and Cambridge into universities of the Protestant Reformation; Catholic colleges closed
HenryVIIIHenry VIII 1491-1547; monarch 1509-1547

1546

Trinity College founded at Oxford by Henry VIII; would be a center of Puritan activity later in the century; 15 graduates of Trinity among the participants in the “Great Migration” to New England, including John Winthrop.

1547

Edward VI succeeds to the English throne upon death of Henry VIII; becomes incapacitated in 1553 and brings on a dynastic crisis.

1553

Henry’s daughter Mary succeeds to the throne; attempts to reinstate Catholicism as a state church
Some 800 Protestants leave England for the Continent to wait out Mary’s reign. The “Marian Exile.”

1558

Elizabeth, Mary’s half-sister, succeeds to the throne; makes it her business to confirm England’s Protestantism.

1582

Founding of the University of Edinburgh; later a center of the Scottish Enlightenment

1584

Emmanuel College founded at Cambridge by Elizabeth’s finance minister on the prior site of a Dominican priory.  Becomes center of Puritan camp with Anglicanism. Some 29 participants in the “Great Migration” to England in 1630s among its graduates when college lost favor with Charles I and his bishop, William Laud..

1603

Upon Elizabeth’s death, James I succeeds to the English throne. First of the Tudor monarchs. Reigns until his death in 1627.

1625

Charles I succeeds his father to the throne; takes increasingly hardline against Puritan critics of his brand of quasi-Catholic Anglicanism. Bishop William Laud his enforcer.

 

Last updated; January 27, 2014
ram31@columbia.edu

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